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E' la fine di un mito? La Lupa Capitolina, creazione medievale.

La Lupa Capitolina, per secoli ritenuta un simbolo dell'antica Roma, in quanto intimamente legata alla storia della città Eterna, in occasione del recente restauro ha rivelato un segreto inatteso, cioé non sarebbe opera del 470-480 a.C., bensì una fusione uscita da un'officina medievale. La prova l'avrebbe fornita proprio la tecnica di lavorazione tipica del medioevo.

La famosa Lupa Capitolina è più giovane
dell’antica Roma
E’ la fine di un mito?

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Ritorna alla ribalta la vecchia, chiacchierata
statua di bronzo della Lupa Capitolina, da secoli simbolo della
stessa Roma. Nel 1997, come è noto, quest’opera in bronzo attribuita a vari
autori, nonché a vari periodi storici, subì un lavoro di restauro per eliminare
tutte le imperfezioni che il tempo e le intemperie avevano provocato sul
metallo. E le sorprese non sono mancate, anche se tenute segrete fino a qualche
tempo fa. Infatti nel museo capitolino quest’opera porta un cartello che la
indica datata 470-480 a.C.

Ed invece, ecco il segreto, dagli studi condotti
dagli esperti di statuaria etrusca e greca, cui si riconduceva la tecnica
adoperata per la Lupa, è risultato che questa è opera di una officina
medioevale.Crolla dunque un vecchio mito durato secoli. Eppure lo stesso Benito
Mussolini, che si sentiva legato profondamente alla civiltà romana, e lo
dimostrano le testimonianze ancora evidenti dello stile architettonico di molte
costruzioni dell’epoca, nonché le decorazioni sparse qua e là, tra cui i fasci,
simbolo dello stesso regime, volle che fossero inviate in omaggio nelle
principali città americane le copie della Lupa. Questo a significare che in
Italia e all’estero si collegava strettamente la storia di Roma alla storia
della famosa Lupa.

Ed ecco il segreto svelato pochi giorni fa in un
repotage firmato da Rossella Lorenzi in un giornale online, il href="http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2006/11/22/shewolf_arc.html?category=history&guid=20061122090000">“Discovery.
news
“, dal titolo quanto mai significativo: “Rome’s
She-Wolf Younger Than Its City
” (La Lupa di Roma più giovane della sua
città).

Qui l’autrice dell’articolo ci presenta tutta la
storia del gruppo bronzeo, che qualcuno ha definito il “Totem della romanità”,
riportando le varie ipotesi sulla sua origine.





Rome’s She-Wolf Younger Than Its City

Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery
News

Nov. 22, 2006 — The icon of Rome’s
foundation, the Capitoline she-wolf, was crafted in the Middle Ages, not the
Antiquities, according to a research into the statue’s bronze-casting
technique.
The discovery quashes the long-prevailing belief that the she-wolf
was adopted as an icon by the earliest Romans as a symbol for their
city.

Recalling the story of a she-wolf which fed Romulus, the
legendary founder of Rome, and his twin brother, Remus, after they had been
thrown in a basket into the Tiber River, the statue has been always linked to
the ancient world. It was thought to be either the product of an Etruscan
workshop in the 5th century B.C. or the masterpiece of the 6th century B.C.
Etruscan sculptor Vulca of Veii.

It was believed that the Romans later adopted the wolf
since her defiant stance and raised eyebrows seemed to reflect Rome’s liberation
from the Etruscan rule.
On the contrary, scholars have long established that
the bronze figures of Romulus and Remus were added in the Renaissance, in
accordance to the legend of Rome’s foundation.

“Now incontestable proofs tell us that also the she-wolf
is not a product of the Antiquities,” Adriano La Regina, former Rome’s
archaeological superintendent and professor of Etruscology at Rome’s La Sapienza
University, wrote in Italy’s daily “La Repubblica.”
According to La Regina,
analysis carried out by restorer Anna Maria Carruba during the 1997 restoration
of the bronze statue showed that the she-wolf
was cast as a single unit. This technique was typically used in the Middle
Ages.

“Ancient bronzes differentiate from those made in the
Middle Ages because they were cast in separate parts, and then brazed together,”
La Regina said
First used by the Greeks and then adopted by Etruscan and
Roman artists, the technique basically consisted of brazing the separate joints
using bronze as welding material.

The new dating of the Capitoline she-wolf was not revealed
at the presentation of the restored statue in 2000. The Capitoline Museum, where
the bronze is displayed, claims the artwork traces back to 480-470
B.C.

“Analysis and findings from the restoration were ignored,”
wrote La Regina.

Indeed, it might have not been easy for the Romans to
accept that the archetypal symbol of Rome was cast in the relatively recent
Middle Ages.
The she-wolf was one of the favored images of Benito Mussolini,
the fascist dictator, who considered himself the founder of the New Rome. He
sent various copies of the bronze to American cities.
The Capitoline she-wolf
was also used in the poster of the 1960 Rome Olympics and is one of the most
popular items among souvenir sellers in Rome.

Gregory Warden, a professor of art history at Southern
Methodist University who specializes in Etruscan bronzes, found the suggestion
that the she-wolf may be medieval “intriguing.” But, he does not consider the
matter closed.

“While the statue is singular, and thus difficult
to compare to other Etruscan statuary, I do not think that the technical
argument is fully persuasive, since we have so little comparative evidence for
large-scale bronze casting in the Etruscan world,” he said. “We certainly cannot
assume that Etruscan bronze-casting techniques would always have been identical
to those of the Greeks.”